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Implementation Completion Report (ICR) Review - National Fadama development

1. Project Data:   
ES Date Posted:
Project Name:
National Fadama development
Project Costs(US $M)
 105.9  104.2
Loan/Credit (US $M)
 67.5  66.9
Sector, Major Sect.:
Irrigation & Drainage,
Cofinancing (US $M)
L/C Number:
Board Approval (FY)
Partners involved
Closing Date
09/30/1996 03/31/1999
Prepared by: Reviewed by: Group Manager: Group:  
Madhur Gautam
Ridley Nelson Gregory Ingram OEDST

2. Project Objectives and Components:

a. Objectives
The project's goal was to increase farmer incomes and contribute to food security and poverty alleviation in fadama areas (low-lying flood plains usually with access to shallow groundwater), in large part through development of small-scale irrigation using low-cost petrol-driven pumps, to make agricultural production less dependent on erratic rainfall regimes. Project objectives were included in the SAR in the form of outputs: To assist the borrower to: (i) construct about 50000 tubewells in fadama lands for small-scale irrigation; (ii) simplify drilling technology for tubewells; (iii) construct fadama infrastructure; (iv) organize farmers for irrigation management, cost recovery and to have better access to credit, marketing and other services; (v) carry out aquifer studies; (vi) monitor and upgrade irrigation technologies; and (vii) complete a full assessment of the environmental and social impacts of fadama development.

b. Components
(a) Shallow tubewells (to extract and distribute water for irrigation); (b) Infrastructure development (construct 810 km of roads, 126 storage and marketing facilities, and complete spillway and distribution canals for the Watari Irrigation Scheme in Kano state to irrigate 1200 ha; (c) Institutional Development (to organize farmers into Fadama Users Associations - FUAs). (d) Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (PME) (to monitor and evaluate programs at the federal and state levels, and conduct a full environmental impact assessment); (e) National Fadama Facility (NFF) (to assist fadama development in non-core states).

c. Comments on Project Cost, Financing and Dates
The project became effective on February 23, 1993, and closed two and one half years late, with three extensions.

3. Achievement of Relevant Objectives:

The project achieved several of its objectives. It substantially achieved the target for tubewell construction, although the distribution of procured pumps (60%) was less than the target. The remaining pumps are expected to be fully distributed by the current dry season, April 2000. The targets for infrastructure development was also substantially achieved (87% for road construction and 94% for storage and marketing facilities). The target for irrigation under the Watari Irrigation Scheme was less successful, at 678 ha, as a result of higher than anticipated costs of rehabilitation. The objectives of monitoring fadama development and upgrading of irrigation technology were achieved. The aquifer studies for core states were completed but not for a few of the non-core states. In farmer organization, the project exceeded the appraisal target for forming FUAs (at 138%).

4. Significant Outcomes/Impacts:

A major achievement was the development and promotion of simplified well drilling technology. The project established the viability of cost recovery in fadama development program, although the recovery of loans from FUAs was less than satisfactory (at an overall 71%). Although only 60% of the target hectarage was irrigated (using the complete tubewell-pump package), overall the project has had a satisfactory impact on farmer incomes and poverty reduction, with an estimated ERR of approximately 40%. Working in conjunction with a technology development project, the increased cropping intensity and production stability as a result of assured irrigation has improved the welfare of fadama farmers. High financial returns for farmers and full cost recovery suggest that project outcomes are likely to be sustainable.

5. Significant Shortcomings (include non-compliance with safeguard features):

The arrangements for the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure are inadequate. Many FUAs have access to commercial banks but production credit available to them is insufficient. Moreover, the recovery rate of loans, although improved overtime, is still unsatisfactory. Processing and marketing continue to be problems in many states. One of the fundamental goals of the farmers organization component was not achieved - direct procurement of wells and pumps by FUAs from the private sector. A major shortcoming was the irregularity in procurement practices. These flaws were identified in an ex post procurement audit.
6. Ratings:ICROED ReviewReason for Disagreement/Comments
Institutional Dev.:
    Same rating
Bank Performance:
Borrower Perf.:
Quality of ICR:

7. Lessons of Broad Applicablity:

1. Beneficiary involvement in the design and implementation of projects increases the ownership and chances of success.
2. Farmers want flexibility in project design, allowing them a choice among alternative investment options.
3. For economically and financially viable investments, cost recovery is possible and contributes towards project sustainability (especially with participatory and flexible project design).
4. Bank supervision needs to pay particular attention to the procurement system.

8. Audit Recommended?  No


9. Comments on Quality of ICR:

The ICR is thorough and provides a good description of projects achievements and shortfalls.

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